Home Civil Society Voices Menteri alam sekitar baru harus menangani perubahan iklim di Malaysia (Malay/English)

Menteri alam sekitar baru harus menangani perubahan iklim di Malaysia (Malay/English)

New environment minister must address climate change in Malaysia

GREENPEACE MALAYSIA

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[ENGLISH VERSION BELOW] Greenpeace Malaysia menghantar surat kepada Menteri Sumber Asli, Alam Sekitar dan Perubahan Iklim yang baru, Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad, menggesa untuk mengutamakan pendekatan yang menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk menangani perubahan iklim melalui mitigasi dan adaptasi, dengan penggubalan tiga akta iaitu; akta perubahan iklim, pencemaran jerebu merentasi sempadan atau akta udara bersih, dan semakan Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar 1974.

Gesaan ini dibuat sebagai susulan kepada tuntutan pra-pilihan raya agar rakyat dan wakil rakyat Malaysia #UndiIklim dengan meletakkan isu perubahan iklim di hadapan. Rancangan oleh kerajaan baru yang dirangka dalam 150 hari pertama adalah penting dan menjadi asas bagi hala tuju dan haluan yang akan diambil. Serta mendedahkan potensi kesan positif atau negatifnya kepada sesebuah negara.

Dalam artikel 2019 yang ditulis oleh menteri alam sekitar semasa, beliau menyebut: “Terdapat banyak cadangan tentang bagaimana rakyat Malaysia biasa boleh melakukan bahagian mereka untuk mengurangkan perubahan iklim…. Tetapi akhirnya, apa yang diperlukan ialah kerajaan memimpin dengan dasar dan tindakan mereka.”

Oleh itu, semasa Menteri Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad melangkah ke dalam peranan barunya, kami meminta beliau memenuhi janjinya dengan menerajui perubahan yang memberi kesan dalam dasar dan tindakan kerajaan, dimulai dengan tiga akta.

  1. Akta perubahan iklim

Agenda perubahan iklim kita berpecah-belah, dan tadbir urus alam sekitar telah dibahagikan kepada kementerian yang berbeza. Contohnya, dalam Bajet 2023 baru-baru ini, pengangkutan awam, kenderaan elektrik dan pengurangan karbon telah diletakkan dalam bahagian bajet yang berbeza.

Walau bagaimanapun, kita memerlukan strategi jangka panjang untuk pengurangan karbon, mitigasi dan adaptasi iklim. Walaupun kerajaan mempunyai Bahagian Perubahan Iklim serta Pusat Teknologi Hijau dan Perubahan Iklim Malaysia, ia melaksanakan fungsi berkaitan perubahan iklim tanpa perundangan.

Kita memerlukan rangka kerja perundangan di bawah akta perubahan iklim untuk seorang menteri bertanggungjawab bagi kedua-dua isu hijau (berkaitan biodiversiti seperti perhutanan) dan isu perang (mengenai kesihatan manusia seperti pencemaran udara) serta isu perubahan iklim seperti hutan, air, pertanian, hakisan pantai, cukai karbon, dan tenaga boleh diperbaharui.

  1. Akta pencemaran jerebu rentas sempadan atau akta udara bersih

Antara tahun 2018 dan 2019, kerajaan Pakatan Harapan telah merangka akta pencemaran jerebu rentas sempadan tetapi kerajaan Perikatan Nasional dan Barisan Nasional telah memutuskan untuk menangguhkan pembentangan akta pencemaran jerebu rentas sempadan dan terus menggunakan taktik diplomasi.

Bagaimanapun, diplomasi sahaja tidak dapat menyelesaikan masalah. Lagipun, terlalu banyak diplomasi dan terlalu sedikit tindakan telah bertanggungjawab terhadap masalah jerebu yang berulang. Tambahan pula, kerajaan kita perlu meletakkan tanggungjawab ke atas syarikat milik Malaysia.

NGO di Malaysia termasuk Greenpeace telah memfailkan aduan pencemaran udara kepada Suruhanjaya Hak Asasi Manusia Malaysia (Suhakam) untuk menyerlahkan jurang utama dalam pelaksanaan perundangan kita, termasuk piawaian kualiti udara yang tidak selaras dengan panduan global daripada Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO).

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Mengenai akta jerebu rentas sempadan, kerajaan Malaysia boleh menambah baik usaha Singapura dan mengatasi kelemahan diplomatik. Kami menghormati kedaulatan negeri dan prinsip tidak campur tangan, tetapi kita mesti menangani dan meletakkan tanggungjawab ke atas syarikat milik Malaysia dalam membiayai dan menyumbang kepada kebakaran hutan dan aktiviti penyaliran gambut di Indonesia yang membawa kepada jerebu rentas sempadan.

Selain itu, kita memerlukan instrumen undang-undang yang disediakan oleh Asean untuk menyerlahkan isu ini dan meminta syarikat Malaysia untuk bertanggungjawab.

Mengenai piawaian pencemaran udara, kita perlu menyelaraskan kualiti udara kebangsaan dengan piawaian antarabangsa dan garis panduan WHO 2021 yang disyorkan.

  1. Semakan Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar 

Jabatan Alam Sekitar (JAS) telah menyemak semula penalti ke atas pencemar dalam Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar 1974 pada Oktober 2022.

Bagaimanapun, kerajaan perlu memasukkan pindaan ke atas piawaian pencegahan, pemantauan dan penguatkuasaan pencemaran alam sekitar; mengukuhkan garis panduan penilaian impak alam sekitar untuk menegakkan kesaksamaan, ketelusan dan penyertaan awam; dan memasukkan konsep ekonomi pekeliling holistik terutamanya untuk sisa terjadual.

Mengenai garis panduan penilaian impak alam sekitar, amalan semasa yang melibatkan pemaju swasta yang membayar sendiri perunding untuk menjalankan penilaian impak bagi projek mereka dan menghasilkan laporan penilaian mereka, hampir semua laporan penilaian impak alam sekitar tersebut menguntungkan pemaju yang membayarnya.

Oleh itu, adalah penting bahawa JAS, bukan pemaju, menjadi pihak yang membayar mereka (perunding) yang menyediakan penilaian impak alam sekitar.

Dalam penilaian impak, adalah penting untuk mengukuhkan keperluan undang-undang dan tadbir urus yang baik dalam proses; meningkatkan ketelusan; menjadikannya mudah diakses oleh orang ramai, NGO alam sekitar, kumpulan berkepentingan dan wakil rakyat; dan mengubah kaedah paparan awam untuk meningkatkan penglibatan awam dan penglibatan pihak berkepentingan. Kapasiti penguatkuasaan juga harus diperkukuh.

Mengenai konsep ekonomi pekeliling, peruntukan perlu disertakan untuk membolehkan kawalan pencemaran dan pengurangan sisa melalui pemulihan sumber. Sebagai contoh, pemulihan biogas daripada sisa ternakan dan sistem pengumpulan wajib sisa elektronik perlu diperkenalkan dan dikawal selia.

Sebaliknya, dari segi pembebasan dan pelepasan bahan kimia toksik, kita memerlukan peruntukan atau perundangan baru untuk mentadbir urus kimia supaya kerajaan boleh menguruskan pangkalan data bahan kimia dan bahan toksik dari perspektif keseluruhan kitaran hayat. – Greenpeace Malaysia

English version

New environment minister must to address climate change in Malaysia

Greenpeace Malaysia sent a letter to the new Natural Resources, Environment and Climate Change Minister, Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad, calling for the prioritisation of a comprehensive and integrated approach to climate change mitigation and adaptation through the enactment of three acts, namely, a climate change act, a transboundary haze pollution or clean air act, and the revising of our Environmental Quality Act 1974.

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This call comes as a follow-up to pre-election demands for Malaysians and elected representatives to #Vote4Climate by putting issues with climate change at the forefront. Plans formulated in the first 150 days of a new government are vital in laying down the foundations for the direction and course it will take. As well as to reveal its potential positive or negative impacts on a country.

In a 2019 article written by the current environment minister, he mentioned: “There have been many suggestions of how ordinary Malaysians can do their part to reduce climate change…But ultimately, what is needed is for governments to lead the way by their policies and actions.”

Therefore as Minister Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad steps into his new role, we ask that he fulfil his promises by leading the way through impactful changes in governmental policies and actions, by starting with the three acts.

  1. Climate change act

Our climate change agenda is fragmented, environmental governance has been divided into different ministries, for example, in the recent Budget 2023, public transport, electric vehicles and carbon reduction were included in different parts of the budget.

However, we need a long-term strategy for carbon reduction, climate mitigation and adaptation. Despite having a Climate Change Division and Malaysia Green Technology and Climate Change Centre, they are performing climate change-related functions without legislation. We need a legislative framework under a climate change act for a minister to be responsible for both green (concerning biodiversity such as forestry) and brown issues (concerning human health such as air pollution) as well as climate change issues, such as forests, water, agriculture, coastal erosion, carbon tax and renewable energy.

  1. Transboundary haze pollution act or clean air act

Between 2018 and 2019, the Pakatan Harapan government drafted a transboundary haze pollution act but the Perikatan Nasional and Barisan Nasional government decided to shelve the tabling of the transboundary haze pollution act and continue to use diplomacy.

However, diplomacy alone cannot solve the problem. After all, too much diplomacy and too little action has been responsible for the recurring haze.

Furthermore, our government needs to hold Malaysian businesses accountable. NGOs in Malaysia including Greenpeace have filed an air pollution complaint to the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (Suhakam) to highlight major gaps in our legislative tools, including air quality standards that are not in line with global guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO).

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On the transboundary haze act, the Malaysian government can improve on Singapore’s efforts and overcome diplomatic shortcomings. We respect the state sovereignty and the non-interference principle, but we must address and hold responsible Malaysian companies’ role in financing and contributing to forest fires and peat draining activities in Indonesia which lead to transboundary haze.

Additionally, we need a legal instrument prepared by Asean to highlight this cause and hold Malaysian companies to account.

On air pollution standards, we need to align the national air quality with international standards and the recommended 2021 WHO guidelines.

  1. Revised Environmental Quality Act

The Department Of Environment (DoE) has revised the penalties on polluters in the Environmental Quality Act 1974 in October 2022.

However the government needs to include amendments on the standards of environmental pollution prevention, monitoring and enforcement; strengthen environmental impact assessment guidelines to uphold impartiality, transparency and public participation; and include the concept of a holistic circular economy especially for scheduled waste.

On environmental impact assessment guidelines, the current practice involves private developers paying consultants to conduct such assessments for their projects and produce their assessment reports, almost all these reports are favourable to the developers paying them.

Therefore, it is important that the DoE, not the developer, be the party that pays these (consultants) who conduct the environmental impact assessments.

In environmental impact assessments, it is important to strengthen the legal requirements and good governance in the process; increase transparency; make it accessible to the public, environmental NGOs, interest groups and elected representatives; and transform public display methods to enhance public engagement and stakeholder involvement. Enforcement capacity should be strengthened.

On the concept of circular economy, provisions should be included to enable pollution control and reduction of waste through recovery of resources. For example, biogas recovery from livestock waste and mandatory e-waste collection systems should be introduced and regulated.

On the other hand, in terms of emission and release of toxic chemicals, we need new provisions or new legislation for chemical governance so that the government can manage the database of chemicals and toxic substances from the whole life cycle perspective. – Greenpeace Malaysia

The views expressed in Aliran's media statements and the NGO statements we have endorsed reflect Aliran's official stand. Views and opinions expressed in other pieces published here do not necessarily reflect Aliran's official position.

AGENDA RAKYAT - Lima perkara utama
  1. Tegakkan maruah serta kualiti kehidupan rakyat
  2. Galakkan pembangunan saksama, lestari serta tangani krisis alam sekitar
  3. Raikan kerencaman dan keterangkuman
  4. Selamatkan demokrasi dan angkatkan keluhuran undang-undang
  5. Lawan rasuah dan kronisme
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