Home Coalitions Clean and Fair Elections Laksanakan pilihan raya pecat bagi menangani isu lompat parti (Malay/English)

Laksanakan pilihan raya pecat bagi menangani isu lompat parti (Malay/English)

File photo: Aliran

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[ENGLISH VERSION BELOW] Gabungan Pilihan Raya Bersih dan Adil (Bersih) khuatir dengan perkembangan di mana Ahli Parlimen (MP) daripada Perikatan Nasional yang menyatakan secara terbuka bahawa peruntukan pembangunan kawasan adalah sebab utama mereka menyatakan sokongan kepada Perdana Menteri Anwar Ibrahim dan membelakangkan pandangan parti mereka.

Pendirian Bersih, yang turut digemakan oleh pertubuhan masyarakat sivil yang lain, adalah supaya peruntukan pembangunan kawasan diberikan dengan adil kepada semua ahli parlimen tanpa mengira sokongan atau penentangan mereka terhadap parti pemerintah.

Kerajaan “Madani” yang dipimpin Anwar perlu menjadi lebih baik daripada kerajaan sebelumnya yang menahan peruntukan kepada ahli parlimen pembangkang dan bebas.

Punca permasalahannya terbahagi kepada dua bahagian: kelompangan undang-undang anti-lompat yang sedia ada dan penggunaan peruntukan sebagai senjata untuk tawar menawar.

Bersih percaya ada tiga pilihan untuk menangani isu lompat parti.

Pertama, boleh ada usaha dwipartisan untuk memperketatkan undang-undang anti-lompat bagi menutup lompang yang ada, namun hal ini akan menghakis autonomi ahli parlimen untuk mengundi berdasarkan nurani mereka dan terpaksa menuruti arahan parti atau dibuang dan hilang kerusi.

Kedua, Bersih cenderung supaya kerajaan mempertimbangkan pelaksanaan pilihan raya pecat (recall elections) untuk dikenakan kepada mereka yang menukar kesetiaan tanpa meninggalkan parti. Mekanisme ini digunakan di beberapa negara seperti Taiwan dan Amerika Syarikat di mana pilihan raya pecat mengembalikan mandat kepada rakyat untuk mengisytiharkan sama ada sesuatu kerusi itu perlu dikosongkan selepas wakil rakyatnya terlibat dalam keputusan yang kontroversial seperti lompat parti atau menukar sokongan atau membangkang perdana menteri.

Tidak seperti undang-undang anti-lompat di peringkat persekutuan dan negeri yang memberikan kuasa kepada speaker atau dewan negeri untuk menentukan kekosongan kerusi, pilihan raya pecat memberi kuasa kepada pengundi bagi memulakan petisyen untuk memecat atau mengekalkan wakil rakyat mereka – walaupun pelaksanaan ini akan ada implikasi kewangan.

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Ketiga, Malaysia perlu mempertimbangkan untuk melaksanakan sistem perwakilan berkadaran secara penuh atau separa sebagai sistem sistem pilihan raya baharu (atau sistem campuran). Dalam sistem perwakilan berkadawan, rakyat mengundi berdasarkan senarai parti, justeru undi itu jelas memberi mandat kepada parti dan bukannya individu.

Dalam isu peruntukan pembangunan kawasan, Bersih mengusulkan dua langkah berikut:

Pertama, penginstitusian peruntukan pembangunan kawasan secara undang-undang untuk memberikan peruntukan yang adil agar peruntukan tersebut bukan lagi atas budi bicara PM.

Bersih menyokong seruan Institut Demokrasi dan Hal Ehwal Ekonomi (Ideas) yang telah menggesa kerajaan untuk mengkanunkan peruntukan pembangunan kawasan bagi menstabilkan politik Malaysia selain meratakan padang permainan politik.

Kedua, dalam jangka masa yang lebih panjang, peruntukan pembangunan kawasan perlu berjalan sendiri atau diuruskan melalui kerajaan tempatan yang dipilih melalui pilihan raya kerana pembangunan kawasan tidak sewajarnya menjadi tugas MP, yang sepatutnya memberi fokus kepada isu nasional dan membahaskan rang undang-undang serta polisi-polisi utama kerajaan yang memerintah. – Bersih

English version

To curb party defections, implement recall elections and introduce proportional representation

The Coalition for Clean and Fair Elections (Bersih) views with trepidation current developments in which at least four members of Parliament from Perikatan Nasional have publicly stated that constituency development funds is a primary reason why they declared their support for Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim against the wishes of their party.

Bersih’s position, echoed by various civil society groups, is that constituency development funds must be given equally to all MPs, irrespective of their support for or against the government of the day.

The “Madani” (Civil) government led by Anwar ought to do better than previous governments that withheld constituency development allocations from opposition and independent MPs.

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The crux of the problem today is twofold: the inefficacy of the existing ‘anti-hopping’ law and the weaponisation of constituency development funds as a bargaining chip.

Bersih believes there are three options to manage party hopping.

First, there can be a bipartisan effort to tighten the anti-hopping law to cover existing loopholes, but this will erode individual MP’s autonomy to vote according to their conscience and instead have to toe the party line or be sacked and lose their seats.

Second, Bersih’s preferred solution is that the government should consider implementing recall elections for those who switch allegiances without leaving their parties. This mechanism is used in countries like Taiwan and the US, where recall elections return the mandate to the people to declare whether or not a seat should be vacated after an elected representative switches allegiance for or against a prime minister.

Unlike current ‘anti-hopping’ laws at federal or state level which give either the speaker or the state assembly the power to determine a seat vacancy, recall elections empower a constituency’s voters to initiate a petition to either recall or keep their representatives – albeit this comes with some financial implications.

Third, Malaysia ought to consider introducing proportional representation either fully or partially as a new (or mixed) electoral system. In a proportional representation system, the people vote for a party and seats are allotted to parties according to their vote share, so it is clear once and for all that the seat belongs to the party, not individual MPs.

On constituency development funds, Bersih recommends the following two steps:

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First, institutionalise constituency development fund allocations by law to give equal allocations so that it is no longer up to the discretion (budi bicara) of the PM of the day.

Bersih supports the call by the Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs (Ideas), which has urged the government to codify constituency development funds to stabilise politics in Malaysia as well as to level the playing field.

Second, in the long term, constituency development funds should be run on its own or through an elected local government as constituency development is not supposed to be an MP’s job, which should focus on national issues and debate legislations and major policies by the government of the day. – Bersih

The views expressed in Aliran's media statements and the NGO statements we have endorsed reflect Aliran's official stand. Views and opinions expressed in other pieces published here do not necessarily reflect Aliran's official position.

AGENDA RAKYAT - Lima perkara utama
  1. Tegakkan maruah serta kualiti kehidupan rakyat
  2. Galakkan pembangunan saksama, lestari serta tangani krisis alam sekitar
  3. Raikan kerencaman dan keterangkuman
  4. Selamatkan demokrasi dan angkatkan keluhuran undang-undang
  5. Lawan rasuah dan kronisme
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